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  • Hereditary, chronic disease of the red blood cells. The red blood cells have a shorter lifespan.
  • The hematopoietic system reacts with bone marrow proliferation in order to produce more red blood cells.
  • It mainly affects people from the Mediterranean region. It can be heterozygous or monozygous type
  • Radiographic changes:
    • Hair-on-end effect of the skull.
    • Widening of the diploe.
    • Enlarged bone marrow spaces in all bones
    • Generalized bone rarefaction.
    • Enlargement of the jaws
    • Reduction of the maxillary sinus
    • Thinning of cortical structures (especially the lower border of the mandible)
    • Lamina dura loss and shortening of teeth roots.

Differential diagnosis



Thalassemia; different cases